- ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY GLOSSARY
An explosive eruption in which a steady, turbulent stream of fragmented magma and magmatic gases is released at a high velocity from a vent. Large volumes of tephra and tall eruption columns are characteristic.\USGS PHOTO GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMSPlinian eruptions are large explosive events that form enormous dark columns of tephra and gas high into the stratosphere (> 11 km). Such eruptions are named for Pliny the Younger, who carefully described the disastrous eruption of Vesuvius in 79 A.D. This eruption generated a huge column of tephra into the sky, pyroclastic flows and surges, and extensive ash fall. Many thousands of people evacuated areas around the volcano, but about 2,000 were killed, including Pliny the Older.\Photograph by R. McGimsey on 18 August 1992A plinian-type explosive eruption from the Crater Peak vent (hidden beneath clouds) on Mount Spurr, Alaska, sent an eruption column to a height of about 18 km above sea level.\Did you know?• Large plinian eruptions sometimes result in the withdrawal of so much magma from below a volcano that part of it collapses to form a large depression called a caldera.• A few well known plinian eruptions of the 20th century include Mount Spurr, Alaska (June 27, August 18, and September 16-17, 1992); Mount Pinatubo, Philippines (June 15, 1991); El Chichón, Mexico (March-April 1982); Mount St. Helens, Washington (May 18, 1980); Agung volcano, Indonesia (March 17, 1963; and Novarupta, Valley of 10,000 Smokes, Alaska (June 6, 1912).• Some plinian eruptions inject such large quantities of aerosols (small liquid droplets) into the stratosphere that surface temperatures on earth may decrease slightly. A few recent eruptions resulted in detectable cooling--the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, Philippines, and the 1982 eruption of El Chichón, Mexico. The massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora volcano, Indonesia, is thought to have caused the 1816 "Year without a Summer" in the northeastern U.S., Canada, and western Europe.
Glossary of volcanic terms. - University of Wisconsin Oshkosh. G. J. Hudak. 2001.
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Plinian eruption — Plinian eruptions are volcanic eruptions marked by their similarity to the eruption of Mt. Vesuvius in AD 79 (as described in a letter written by Pliny the Younger) that killed Pliny the Elder.Plinian eruptions are marked by columns of smoke and… … Wikipedia
Plinian eruption — noun a volcanic eruption in which a stream of gas and ash is violently ejected to a height of several miles • Hypernyms: ↑volcanic eruption, ↑eruption … Useful english dictionary
Eruption column — over Mount Pinatubo in the Philippines An eruption column consists of hot volcanic ash emitted during an explosive volcanic eruption. The ash forms a column rising many kilometres into the air above the peak of the volcano. In the most explosive… … Wikipedia
eruption — noun 1. the sudden occurrence of a violent discharge of steam and volcanic material (Freq. 1) • Syn: ↑volcanic eruption • Derivationally related forms: ↑erupt • Hypernyms: ↑discharge • … Useful english dictionary
Plinian — [ plɪnɪən] adjective Geology relating to or denoting a type of volcanic eruption in which a narrow stream of gas and ash is violently ejected from a vent to a height of several miles. Origin C17: from Ital. pliniano, with ref. to the eruption of… … English new terms dictionary
Phreatomagmatic eruption — Phreatomagmatic eruptions are defined as juvenile forming eruptions as a result of interaction between water and magma. They are different from magmatic and phreatic eruptions. The products of phreatomagmatic eruptions contain juvenile clasts,… … Wikipedia
Hatepe eruption — The Hatepe eruption (named for the Hatepe Plinian pumice fall deposit [cite journal |last=Talbot |first=J. P. |authorlink= |coauthors=Self, S.; Wilson, C. J. N. |year=1994 |month= |title=Dilute gravity current and rain flushed ash deposits in the … Wikipedia
Minoan eruption — Satellite image of Thera, November 21, 2000 Volcano Thera Date 2nd millennium BCE Type … Wikipedia
Phreatic eruption — A Phreatic eruption, also called an ultravulcanian eruption, occurs when rising magma makes contact with ground or surface water. The extreme temperature of the magma (anywhere from 600 °C to 1,170 °C (1110–2140 °F)) causes near instantaneous… … Wikipedia
phreatic eruption — ALASKA VOLCANO OBSERVATORY GLOSSARY An explosive volcanic eruption caused when water and heated volcanic rocks interact to produce a violent expulsion of steam and pulverized rocks. Magma is not involved. GLOSSARY OF VOLCANIC TERMS A steam… … Glossary of volcanic terms